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Drug metabolism refers to the biochemical processes by which the body transforms drugs into metabolites that can be excreted from the body. These processes are essential for eliminating drugs from the body and preventing their accumulation, which can lead to toxicity.
Drug metabolism occurs primarily in the liver, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and intestines can also play a role. There are two main phases of drug metabolism:
Phase I metabolism: This phase involves the modification of drugs by introducing or exposing functional groups, such as hydroxyl (-OH), amino (-NH2), or carboxyl (-COOH) groups, through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis reactions. These reactions are primarily carried out by enzymes called cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and can result in the formation of active, inactive, or toxic metabolites.
Phase II metabolism: This phase involves the conjugation of drugs or their Phase I metabolites with endogenous compounds, such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or amino acids, to increase their solubility and facilitate their excretion from the body. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes called transferases, and the resulting conjugates are typically inactive and easily excreted from the body.
The rate and extent of drug metabolism can vary depending on several factors, including genetics, age, sex, diet, and other drugs. Genetic variations in CYP enzymes can affect drug metabolism and lead to individual differences in drug response and toxicity.
Drug metabolism can also give rise to drug-drug interactions, where the metabolism of one drug affects the metabolism of another drug, leading to changes in drug efficacy or toxicity. For example, a drug that inhibits CYP enzymes can decrease the metabolism of another drug, leading to increased drug levels and potential toxicity.
Understanding drug metabolism is essential for the development of safe and effective drugs and for optimizing drug therapy for individual patients.
The global drug metabolism market is a rapidly growing industry that encompasses the study of the biochemical and physiological processes that transform drugs into metabolites within the body. This market includes various products and services related to drug metabolism, including in vitro and in vivo testing, metabolite identification, and drug-drug interaction studies.
According to a report by MarketsandMarkets, the global drug metabolism market size is expected to reach USD 4.65 billion by 2025, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.4% from 2020 to 2025. The increasing demand for personalized medicine and the rising prevalence of chronic diseases are driving market growth.
The market is segmented based on product and service, application, and region. Based on product and service, the market is segmented into instruments, software, and services. Based on application, the market is segmented into drug discovery and development, drug metabolism studies, and other applications.
North America dominated the global drug metabolism market in 2020, followed by Europe and the Asia Pacific. The dominance of North America is attributed to the presence of major pharmaceutical companies, well-established healthcare infrastructure, and increasing investment in research and development activities.
The key players operating in the global drug metabolism market include Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Eurofins Scientific, Charles River Laboratories International, Inc., Cyprotex PLC, and General Electric Company, among others.
Overall, the drug metabolism market is expected to experience significant growth in the coming years, driven by technological advancements, increasing demand for personalized medicine, and the rising prevalence of chronic diseases.
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